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Fetal alcohol syndrome

Women who drink while pregnant expose their unborn child to a bath of alcohol which affects growth: it damages the brain's wiring and alters body development. The baby with fetal alcohol syndrome is born with physical and mental defects and behavioral disabilities. How badly the baby is affected depends on many factors, including when during pregnancy the woman drank and the pattern of alcohol abuse. The effects last for life.

Doctors can diagnose FAS by noting the history of maternal drinking and by observing slow growth, abnormal facial features and central nervous system problems (such as lower IQ, attention problems and developmental delays). A child with the weaker form of FAS, fetal alcohol effect, lacks the full set of physical abnormalities seen in FAS. The general term for FAS/FAE and related disorders is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

The physical characteristics may not be obvious, but FAS is nonetheless a cause of mental retardation, attention deficit disorder, developmental delays, learning disabilities and behaviour disorders. As they grow, children with FAS encounter mental health problems, poor marks in school and trouble with the law.

Prenatal alcohol exposure is a primary factor in placing children in state care, with the result that FAS affects an estimated 60% to 75% of foster children. A significant number of children with FAS are placed in domestic adoptions. For international adopters FAS is a special concern in countries of high alcohol consumption, such as Russia and countries of Eastern Europe.


Alcohol Related Birth Injury, (FAS/FAE) Resource Site, Details of 17 Alberta Regional FAS Committees. Lethbridge AB
Best Practices: FAS/FAE and the Effects of Other Substance Use During Pregnancy, Review of the literature on best practices for prevention, identification and intervention. Reference tool for professionals, front-line workers, parents and educators. (PDF) Health Canada.
Best Start Resource Centre, Supports Ontario community health professionals in enhancing the health of mothers and babies. Consultation, training and resources. Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse, Toronto.
Canadian Health Network - Substance Use/Addictions, Under "Quick Searches", click "Substance Use and Pregnant Women". Links to web pages.
CCSA: Introduction to FASD, Overview of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Ottawa.
CCSA: National Database of FASD and Substance Use During Pregnancy Resources, Canadian FASD and related resources.
CCSA: Information Specialist, For FAS help, call 613-235-4048 or email your query about CCSA or other organizations.
CCSA: FAS Tool Kit, Resource for service providers and program planners, in sections Women at Risk, Alcohol-Affected Children, Alcohol-Affected Parents, FAS Community Development, FAS Monograph, Web Sites. CCSA.
Early Childhood Development Strategy for Aboriginal Children, "A Focus on FAS/FAE". Government FAS initiative with stronger focus on First Nations children and families. Health Canada.
FASD, Alcohol policy, law, statistics, publications, resources. Alcohol Policy Network, Toronto.
FAS Parent Support Groups - Canada, Directory of groups, contact info.
FAS/E Support Network of B.C., Many articles. Warm line. Training programs. Surrey, B.C.
FAS/FAE, Health Canada programs for First Nations and Inuit communities.
FAS: Helping the Adopted Child With FAS, Strategies and resources for helping the adopted child. Robin Hilborn, Family Helper.
FASAT (Ontario), FAS Assistance and Training, Parent support groups in southern Ontario; facts; myths; FAQ; does your child have FAS. Chris Margetson, Guelph, Ont. --Feb. 21, 2007
FASD Connections, Serving adolescents and adults with FASD. Training, consultation, strategic planning, community development, Project Save (a support group for parents of adolescents and adults with FASD). Founded by Jan Lutke, co-chair of the National Advisory Committee on FASD to Health Canada. Consultants: Tina Antrobus, Bob Steeves, Brenda Knight, Janet Christie, Marsha Teichman. --Feb. 21, 2007
FASlink: FAS Information, Support and Communications Link, FASlink email list. FASlink Archives contain over 130,000 documents on FASD. Articles. Research papers. TRIUMF clinics and centres. "The largest archive of FASD information in the world." Bruce Ritchie, Bright's Grove ON.
FASworld, FAS facts, statistics. FASDay email list. An international alliance of parents and professionals, co-founded by Bonnie Buxton and Brian Philcox of Toronto and Teresa Kellerman of Tucson AZ. FASworld Canada strives to reduce FA disorders and their impact, working with health units, family support groups and other organizations who form chapters.
Fetal Alcohol Family Association of Manitoba, Providing advocacy, support and education to Manitoba families and professionals.
Motherisk, Risks of chemicals, drugs and diseases during pregnancy and lactation. Current studies. Toll-free 1-877-327-4636: experts answer questions from families or doctors about alcohol or drug use during pregnancy. Dr. Gideon Koren, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto.
Organic Brain Dysfunction Triage Institute, Liz Lawryk developed the OBD Triage Assessment Model, used to identify for medical evaluation those affected by FAS, and founded the OBD Triage Institute in Calgary AB.
SAFERA, FAS information and consultations. Bulletin SAFVille Express. In French. St-Henri-de-Lévis QC.
Syndrome d'alcoolisation foetale (Fetal alchohol syndrome), French page on FAS, based on Family Helper. Gilles Breton.
Teaching Students with FAS/FAE: A Resource Guide for Teachers, Needs of students. IEPs. Teaching of skills. Skills checklists. B.C. Ministry of Education, 1996.
Tips for Families Considering NAS or Alcohol-Affected Babies, Ten tips on FAS, Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. Adoptive Families Assn. of British Columbia, from Edelstein.

U.S. - Key Sites
FAS Community Resource Center, Teresa Kellerman, co-founder of FASworld, presents an astounding list of articles, ideas, stories and resources. 582 indexed files. Tuscon AZ.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Training and consultation for professionals serving individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. By Teresa Kellerman, FAS Community Resource Center, Tucson AZ.
The above site includes the following resources.
Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Reproduction, Tuula E. Tourmaa.
American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement, 1993.
Cost of One FAS Child, T. Kellerman, 1999.
FAS and the Brain, T. Kellerman, 2006.
FAS Characteristics, T. Kellerman, 2005.
Homeschool Resource Center, Many homeschooling resources.
FAS Linked to Crime, Dan Zakreski, 1998.
FASD Quiz Online, 11 questions to test how much you know about FASD. T. Kellerman, 2006.
FAS Resources, Books, videos, CDs, newsletters, organizations. FAS Community Resource Center.
How To Do FASDAY, Manual for International FAS Awareness Day.
Research Abstracts, FASD Research, 1973-2004.
Static Encephalopathy,

U.S. - Government
Alaska, Office of FAS, FAS info, resources. Alaska Dept. of Health and Social Services.
Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, For searches of databases, journals and web sites related to alcohol research. Archived ETOH database, 1972-2003. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIAAA.
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground, Report on Substance Abuse and Child Protection Services. Scope of substance abuse in the child welfare population, services provided, recommended legislation. April 1999. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.
FASD, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, FASD facts, resources. Centers for Disease Control.
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, Prevention Online (Prevline). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DHHS.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Publications, FAQ, databases. NIAAA, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda MD.
PubMed, MEDLINE database, for literature searches. National Library of Medicine.

U.S. - Non-Government
Alcohol-Related Birth Defects Slide Show, 35 slides. University of North Carolina.
Better Endings, New Beginnings, Help for FASD. Adoption, FAS, foster care, home school, allegations of abuse. Jodee Kulp. Brooklyn Park MN.
Child Welfare and Substance Abuse Services, Publications on substance abuse; lessons learned; evidence-based outcomes; state and local examples. Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007.
FADU: Challenge of FAS: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities, Proceedings from the International FAS Conference, Seattle, Sept. 4-6, 1996. Ann Streissguth and Jonathan Kanter.
FADU: FAS Diagnostic and Prevention Network, Multidisciplinary team using objective screening and diagnostic tools; facial analysis software; FAS diagnostic guide; research. Univ. of Washington, Seattle WA.
FADU: FAS Parent Support Groups - United States, Directory of groups, contact info.
FADU: Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit, University of Washington, Many resources on FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Research. Director, Ann Streissguth, Seattle WA.
Family Empowerment Network, FEN, Support for families affected by FAS/FAE. Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School.
FAS Consultation, Education and Training Services (FASCETS), Support for children, adolescents and adults with FAS. Diane Malbin. Portland OR.
FAS Fact Sheet, Statistics with references. Center for Science in the Public Interest.
FAS Family Resource Institute, FAS Family Resource Institute, Lynnwood WA.
International Center for Alcohol Policies, Alcohol policy think tank. ICAP, Washington DC.
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, Nationwide organization of over 60 professionals assembled to study and combat abuse of all substances. CASA, New York NY.
National Organization on FAS, FAS web resources and events across America. National resource directory of FAS organizations, alcohol addiction and special needs adoptions; search by state. NOFAS, Washington DC.
Substance Abuse Organizations, Organizations providing information on substance abuse. Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007.
Substance-Exposed Newborns, Resources on substance-exposed newborns, infants and children. Child Welfare Information Gateway.

Email lists - by topic
Eastern European Adoption Coalition, 19 email lists. For those adopting from Eastern Europe.
FASadopt, For families who adopted FAS children. 102 members.
FASD Friends, FASD Friends offers support and an opportunity to make new friends.
FAShomed, For parents homeschooling FAS children. 32 members.
FASlink, For individuals, families and professionals who deal with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Archive of 110,000 letters, articles. Bruce Ritchie, Toronto.
HISFAS, For Christians.
OlderFAS, For parents of FAS teens and adults. By Bill Smith of Ontario and Teresa Kellerman of Arizona. 148 members.
Post-adopt, For parents of adopted children with challenging behaviours, FASD and attachment disorder. 252 members.
Parenting Special Needs - FASD, Articles, resources on raising your FAS child. About.Com.

Email lists - by region
Eastern European Adoption Coalition, 19 email lists. Eastern Europe.
FAS-CA, California. 141 members.
FAS-Florida, Florida. 60 members.
FASWorldTexas, Texas. 80 members.
MO-FetalAlcoholSupportGroup, Missouri. 10 members.


Abel, E. and Dintcheff, B. (1984). Factors affecting the outcome of maternal alcohol exposure: I. Parity. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 6: 373-377.

Aronson, Jane et al. Prevalence of FAS in Pre-adoption Evaluations of Children in Russian Orphanages, 1997.

Associated Press, Feb. 11, 2000. Alcohol-Brain Cell Link Found. Single Drinking Binge Can Damage Unborn Child. Johns Hopkins newsletter, Mar. 9, 2000.

Astley, S.J., and Clarren, S.K. (1995). "A Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Screening Tool". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (19) 6, 1565-.

Buxton, Bonnie. Society's Child. In Elm Street May 1998 and Readers' Digest March 2000.

Chasnoff, I.J. (1989). Drug use in women: Establishing a standard of care. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 562, 208-210.

Gere, Anne and Cynthia Gere. Living with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAS/FAE). Michigan Quarterly Review 37.3 Summer 1998: 396-408.

Gomby, D., and Shiono, P. (1991). Estimating the number of substance-exposed infants. The Future of Children: Adoption, 1 (1), 17.

Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2001. Special Issue: Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Parental Use and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Drugs. Wiley InterScience,

International Center on Alcohol Policies. Government Policies on Alcohol and Pregnancy, ICAP Reports 6, Jan. 1999.

Lepage, Carol. Why do I Stay? Chatelaine, Aug. 1999. 40-46.

Mark, Helen. (1999). Drug-Exposed Kids Thrive in Adoptive Homes, Focus on Adoption, Oct/Nov 1999. Adoptive Families Assn. of British Columbia.

Schipper, W. (1991). Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

Streissguth, A. and Giunta, C. (1988). Mental health and health needs of infants and preschool children with FAS. International Journal of Family Psychiatry: 29-47.

Streissguth, A. and K. O'Malley. FAS/FAE: Secondary Disabilities and Mental Health Approaches. 1997 study.

U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. (1990). FAS and other effects of alcohol on pregnancy. In Seventh Special Report to US Congress on Alcohol and Health from the Secretary of Health and Human Services (pp. 139-161). Rockville MD.


Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission. FAS and Other Birth Defects, 2nd Edition. 1996. Edmonton: AADAC, 1-800-280-9616, 403-427-7319, Features a comprehensive literature review.

Assn. for Community Living. Booklet 1: Identifying FAS/FAE; Booklet 2: Parenting Children (0-12 Years) Affected by FAS/E. Booklet 3: Parenting Adolescents Affected by FAS/E: A Guide for Daily Living; Booklet 4: Educational Approaches for Children with FAS/E: A Guide for Caregivers; and Booklet 5: Working with FAS/E Adults. Winnipeg: Assn. for Community Living, 1996-97. 204-786-1607. Information compiled by Nykola Dubienski from existing publications.

Barth, Richard. David Brodzinsky, Madelyn Freundlich. Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice. Impact of prenatal substance exposure on children's health and development. Role of a positive postnatal environment in remediating the effects. Conselling adoptive parents. Services needed for adoptive families. Resource for practitioners, policymakers, researchers. Child Welfare League of America, with the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute.

Brady, Joanne, and Grollman, Sharon. Risk and Reality: Teaching Preschool Children Affected by Substance Abuse. 1994.

Brighter Futures. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. 1999. Breton, AB: Brighter Futures, Box 779, Breton, AB T0C 0P0. 780-696-2543. Booklet. ARBDs and characteristics in infants and young children; parenting tips for people who have children with alcohol-related birth defects.

Buxton, Bonnie. Damaged Angels: A Mother Discovers the Terrible Cost of Alcohol in Pregnancy. 2004. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada. An adoptive mother welcomes a little girl not knowing she struggled with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). 0-676-97638-7

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Directory of FAS/FAE Information and Support Services in Canada. 2000. Ottawa, ON. Directory by province/territory of individuals, groups and organizations providing a service related to FAS/FAE in Canada.

Conry, Julianne and Diane K. Fast. FAS and the Criminal Justice System. BC FAS Resource Society, Box 525, Maple Ridge BC V2X 3P2, 604-467-7101, 2000. People with FAS in the criminal justice system. For judges, lawyers, probation and parole officers, individuals and their families.

Conry, Julie. Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effects: a Resource Guide for Teachers. Victoria: British Columbia, Ministry of Education and Training, Special Programs Branch, 1996. Crown Publications 250-386-4636. Available at

Cowan, Lissa and Jennifer Lee. Living with Prenatal Drug Exposure: A Guide for Parents. 2003. Society of Special Needs Adoptive Parents (SNAP) and Ben Simon Press. For parents and professionals. Introduces caregivers to the challenges of caring for a child prenatally exposed to drugs.

Cowichan Valley FAS Action Team. Jaycee: FAS and Partial FAS. 1998. Duncan BC. Situations in the life of Jaycee, a child with FAS, with suggestions on how to manage them. By members of an FAS/E Parent Support Group, to help families understand why FAS individuals react as they do and to suggest solutions for daily challenges.

Dorris, Michael. The Broken Cord. New York: Harper Collins, 1989. Dorris recounts his struggle to find the cause of the physical, behavioural and learning difficulties of his son Adam, a child with FAS, adopted at three.

Edelstein, Susan B. Children with Prenatal Alcohol and/or Other Drug Exposure: Weighing the Risks of Adoption. Washington, D.C.: CWLA Press, 1995. Child Welfare League of America. FAS and adoption issues. Resources and tools to help professionals and caregivers.

Evensen, Debra. Integrated Active Learning and the Child With FAS/FAE: Help for Tired Teachers. 1994.

Family Resources, Bruised Before Birth: Parenting Children Exposed to Parental Substance Abuse. 1521 Foxhollow Rd., Greensboro NC 27410. For parents, especially adoptive and foster parents; the needs of children through adolescence.

FAS/E Support Network of B.C. A Layman's Guide to FAS and Possible Fetal Alcohol Effects. Surrey, B.C. 1995.

FAS/E Support Network of B.C. Dear World - We Have FAS - Experiences of Young Adults. Surrey, B.C. 1997. Booklet written with the help of a group of young people with FAS/E. A guide to help other young people with FAS/E understand what it is and what it means to them.

FAS/E Support Network of B.C. FAS/E and Education: The Art of Making a Difference. Surrey, B.C. 1997. Handbook to help parents advocate for their children within the education system. Advice about working with the school and the teacher. Psycho-educational testing and assessment.

FAS/E Support Network of B.C. FASNET Assessment Tools. Surrey, B.C. 1995. Series to help parents and non-medical professionals decide if an individual should be assessed for FAS/FAE. The tools identify the characteristics that present themselves at various ages: 0-36 months; 3-5 years; 6-9; 10-13; 14-18; 19 and up. Not for use in diagnosis.

George, Anne. FAS, FAE, NAS Resource. 3 manuals: FAS/FAE & NAS Community Prevention Guide. Guide for Parents, Teachers and Others Caring for Children with FAS/FAE or NAS. FAS/FAE and NAS Guide to Resources. Vancouver: YWCA Crabtree Corner, FAS, Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Prevention Project, 1996, 1993. 604-689-2808.

Gere, Anne and Cindy Gere. "The Graduate: College for Students with FAS/E" in Fantastic Antone Grows Up, edited by Judith Kleinfeld. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2000, 61-83.

Gere, Anne. "Cindy's Story" in Fantastic Antone Succeeds, edited by Judith Kleinfeld. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1993, 55-69.

Gomez, Laura E. Misconceiving Mothers: Legislators, Prosecutors, and the Politics of Prenatal Drug Exposure. Temple Univ. Press. 1997. How the California Legislature and district attorneys grappled with pregnant women's drug use in the 80s and 90s.

Graefe, Sara. Living with FASD: A Guide for Parents. 3rd edition, 2003. Vancouver, BC: Society of Special Needs Adoptive Parents (SNAP, and Ben Simon Press. A practical tool for all who deal with FASD children: parents, teachers, social workers, doctors and other professionals. Includes diagnostic criteria, special considerations for infants and adolescents and an expanded resource list.

Hilborn, Robin. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Helping the Adopted Child with FAS. Post-adoption Helper No. 12, Aug. 2002. Strategies and resources for helping the adopted child.

Interagency FAS/E Program. Living and Working with FAS/E. 1999. Winnipeg MB. Reference manual for parents and professionals, by people who live and work with those affected by FAS. Stories by birth mothers, foster parents, and a young woman living with FAS. Strategies to support children at home and school. Program models to address FAS.

Kleinfeld, Judith and Wescott, Siobhan (eds.). Fantastic Antone Succeeds! Experiences in Educating Children with FAS. 1993. Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Press. NOFAS. For everyone working with alcohol-affected children and their families. Chapters by parents, teachers and professionals who share their experience.

Kleinfeld, Judith, Morse, Barbara and Wescott, Siobhan (eds.). Fantastic Antone Grows Up. 2000. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press. Sequel to Fantastic Antone Succeeds. Chapters by 21 authors. Adolescents and young adults with FAS and their caregivers tell how they cope with living independently; strategies in education, counseling, sexuality, trouble with the law, living skills, family and community needs.

Kulp, Jodee. Our FAScinating Journey, Families at Risk, Journey to Life. Brooklyn Park MN.,

Kulp, Jodee. The Best I Can Be - Living with FAS. Brooklyn Park MN.,

LaFever, Linda Belle. Cheers! Here's to the Baby! A Birth Mother's Discovery of FAS. FAS Family Resource Institute, Box 2525, Lynnwood WA 98036, 253-531-2878, 2000. The struggle of a single mother who gave birth to a child with FAS.

Lasser, Peggy. Challenges and Opportunities: a Handbook for Teachers of Students with Special Needs with a Focus on FA and Partial FAS. 1999. Vancouver, BC: Vancouver School Board. Teachers can learn about the lifelong challenges facing FAS children. Background information, instructional strategies and a teachers's perspective on identification and services.

Lawryk, Liz. "Finding Perspective ... Raising Successful Children Affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder". 2005. Bragg Creek AB. Liz Lawryk, OBD Triage Institute, Box 1289, Bragg Creek AB T0L 0K0, 403-949-3991,, Specialized strategies matched to a patient's unique abilities.

Lutke, Jan. "Parental Advocacy for Alcohol-affected Children" in Fantastic Antone Succeeds, 71-95.

Lutke, Jan. "Works in Progress: the Meaning of Success for Individuals with FAS/E", in Fantastic Antone Grows Up, p. 19-43.

Malbin, Diane. Trying Differently Rather Than Harder. 1999. FASCETS, Box 83175, Portland OR 97283. 503-621-1271,, Booklet on caring for FAS children, adolescents and adults. Research-based information; examples of interventions.

Manitoba Assn. for Community Living. Faces of FAS. Fetal Alcohol Family Assn. of Manitoba, 210 - 500 Portage Ave., Winnipeg R3C 3X1, 204-786-1847. 2001. Ten personal narratives give insight into the daily challenges families face in raising FAS children.

Manitoba Education and Training. What Educators Need to Know About FAS. 1999. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Text Book Bureau. Guide for teachers. From BC Ministry of Education, Skills and Training.

McCreight, Brenda. Recognizing and Managing Children With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effect: A Guidebook. B.C. adoptive parent and social worker offers advice on dealing with children with FAS/E; medical, historical, and social aspects.

McIntyre-Palmer, Florence. Two Sides of the Coin. Calgary: 1995. The author shares her daughter's story. 403-276-1577.

Morse, B.A. and Weiner, L. FAS: Parent and Child: A Handbook, Fetal Alcohol Education Program, Boston University School of Medicine, 1975 Main St., Concord MA 01742, 978-369-7713; 1992. Booklet for caregivers on how to help an FAS child manage behaviour.

Nasdijj. The Blood Runs like a River through my Dreams: a Memoir. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. About Tommy Nothing Fancy. Also published as an article in Esquire, June 1999, 114-117, 146.

Normand, Claude Louise, Rutman, Deborah. Caring for Children with FAS; Working with Families Affected by FAS/E; and Young Adults with FAS/FAE: Experiences, Needs and Support Strategies. 1996. Victoria, B.C.: School of Social Work, Box 1700, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2;

Roberts, G. and Nanson, J. Best Practices: FAS/FAE and the Effects of other Substance use During Pregnancy. 2000. Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa ON K1A 0K9. 613-954-5995. Review of the literature on best practices for FAS/FAE prevention, identification and intervention. Reference tool for professionals, front-line workers, parents and educators. Downloadable:

Saskatchewan Institute on Prevention of Handicaps. FAS: A Resource for Professionals. 2000. 1319 Colony St., Saskatoon SK S7N 2Z1, 306-655-2512, Booklet for professionals about FAS: how FAS occurs, how a diagnosis is made, consequences of FAS, common characteristics of the syndrome.

Stratton, K.R., Howe, C.J., and Battaglia, F.C. (eds.). (1996). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Streissguth, Ann and Kanter, Jonathan (eds.). The Challenge of FAS: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities. 1997. Seattle WA: Univ. of Washington Press. Experts from human services, education and criminal justice describe how they help people affected by FAS.

Streissguth, Ann et al. Understanding the Occurrence of Secondary Disabilities in Clients with FAS and FAE, Final Report, Aug. 1996, Univ. of Washington School of Medicine.

Streissguth, Ann. FAS: A Guide For Families and Communities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1997. Irwin Publishing 1-800-263-7824, ext. 226. Diseases of Fetal Alcohol; Science of FAS; Life-span Approach to FAS; Preparing People with FAS for Life in the Community.

Turpin, Jeanette and Schmidt, Glen (eds.). FAS/E: Developing a Community Response. 1999. Halifax, NS: Fernwood Publishing. For front-line workers and caregivers serving in northern and remote communities.

Where to get books on FAS


Adoption Council of Canada, 211 Bronson Ave., #210, Ottawa ON K1R 6H5. 613-235-0344/235-1566, 888-542-3678,,,

Adoptive Families Assn. of British Columbia, 200 - 7342 Winston St., Burnaby BC V5A 2H1, 604-320-7330,,

Amazon Books,

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, 75 Albert St., #300, Ottawa ON K1P 5E7. 800-559-4514, 613-235-4048, ext. 223,,


Cowichan Valley FAS Action Team, Nikki McConnell, 7430 Rosevear Rd., Duncan BC V9L 5Z8. 250-746-4365,

Family Helper, Box 1353, Southampton, Ont. N0H 2L0. Robin Hilborn,, For Post-adoption Helper.

FAS Bookshelf Inc., 438 - 6540 E. Hastings St., Burnaby BC V5B 4Z5. 604-942-2024, Books, videos, posters.

FAS/E Support Network of B.C., 13279 72nd Ave., Surrey BC V3W 2N5. 604-507-6675,,

Fernwood Publishing, Box 9409, Stn A, Halifax NS B3K 5S3, 902-422-3302,

Interagency FAS/E Program, #49 - 476 King Street, Winnipeg MB R2W 3Z5. 204-582-8658,

Manitoba Text Book Bureau, Box 910, Souris MB R0K 2C0. 204-483-4040.

Parentbooks, 201 Harbord St., Toronto, Ont. M5S 1H6, 416-537-8334. Bill Elleker,,

Society of Special Needs Adoptive Parents, 445 - 5525 West Boulevard, Vancouver BC V6M 3W6, 604-687-3114,,


Adoptive Families Bookstore, 800-372-3300,

Amazon Books,

Child Welfare League of America, 800-407-6273,

NOFAS (National Organization on FAS),, 202-785-4585, 800-66-NOFAS.

North American Council on Adoptable Children, 970 Raymond Ave., #106, St. Paul MN 55114-1149, 651-644-3036,,

Pact, An Adoption Alliance,

Parent Network for the Post-Institutionalized Child, Box 613, Meadow Lands PA 15347,

Perspectives Press, Pat Johnston, Box 90318, Indianapolis IN 46290-0318, 317-872-3055,

Tapestry Books, Box 359, Ringoes NJ 08551, 800-765-2367,,

University of Alaska Press Bookstore, Box 750127, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775. 907-474-6511,

University of Washington School of Medicine, Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit, Seattle WA 98195, 206-543-7155


Ann Arbour: Audiotapes on FAS from Ann Arbour Conference "Living and Learning With FAS" are available from Russell Video Services, 2805 South Industrial, Ann Arbour MI 48104. Sample titles: #5. Secondary Disabilities Study by Ann Streissguth; #11. Art: A Toll for Communication (with your FAS child) by Antonia Rathbun; #12. Birth to Three Project by Ann Streissguth; #20. Mobilizing our Communities for Prevention and Intervention by Ann Streissguth.

Dorris, Michael. The Broken Cord. 1989. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Audiotape. Dorris' account of the joys, struggles and challenges while raising his son Adam, a child with FAS, adopted at three.

Manitoba Education and Training. What Educators Need to Know About FAS. 1999. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Text Book Bureau. Audiotape. Guide for classroom teachers. From BC Ministry of Education, Skills and Training.


"A Mother's Choice". Gryphon Productions, West Vancouver. 604-921-7627. 1-800-263-3558;, 30 min. Discussions of FAS by aboriginal mothers. For aboriginal men and women thinking about having a child, but still dealing with addiction.

"Clinical Diagnosis of FAS". Jon M. Aase, MD, 31 min. Video for professionals.

"Creating Solutions: Women Preventing FAS". 2001. Northern Family Health Society, 1010-B 4th Ave., Prince George BC V2L 3J1, 250-561-2689,, Video accompanying a research paper exploring how to help women recovering from substance misuse in preventing FAS.

"David with F.A.S.: a Story of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome". National Film Board, 1997. 45 min. In public libraries or from NFB, 1-800-267-7710. By Gil Cardinal. About David, whose condition went undiagnosed for 18 years, causing confusion, anger and pain for David and his adoptive family.

"Different Directions: Understanding FAS". Produced by Frameline Productions for Ontario's North for the Children and Toronto's Breaking the Cycle. 2000., 705-567-5926. 22 min. Two children with FAS and their mothers: Kim Meawisige, adoptive mother of five-year-old Brenda (both of aboriginal ancestry), and Chris Margetson, birthmother of Joe, a young adult. Chris Margetson of Guelph, Ont. is founder of FASAT (Ontario) and a member of Health Canada's FAS Advisory Committee. Both Meawasige and Margetson work with FAS professionally.

"FAS Forward: A Fresh Look at Fetal Alcohol Syndrome". Alberta: Distribution Access, 2001. Access/Alberta Learning, Canadian Learning Television, Program Sales, 440-7729, 888-440-4640, 30 min. Ray, Sadie, Naomi and Sindy cope with the effects of exposure to alcohol before they were born. Strategies and approaches that make a difference in their lives. Challenges and myths of FAS.

"FAS Training Video, Parts 1-3." Univ. of Saskatchewan Dept. of Audio Visual Services, 1999. Videos made to educate social workers on the physical and behavioural problems associated with FAS. With Jo Nanson and Francine Ross. Loan from: Saskatchewan Institute on Prevention of Handicaps, 1319 Colony St., Saskatoon SK S7K 4J8, 306-655-2512,

"FAS/FAE: a Community Perspective". Lethbridge Community College Bookstore, 403-320-3341. 20 min. A glimpse into the lives of families coping with alcohol-affected children; the physical and psychological effects of FAS/FAE at different stages of life; strategies to help deal with special needs.

"FAS/FAE: Coping with Challenging Behaviour". FAS/FAE Coordinating Committee of Lethbridge. 403-320-3341. 20 min. A group of caregivers and professionals offer suggestions, strategies and support for anyone living with FAS/FAE.

"FAS/FAE: Teaching Strategies for the Classroom". FAS/FAE Coordinating Committee of Lethbridge. 403-320-3341. 20 min. How teachers, caregivers and social workers can deal with alcohol-affected children in the educational setting.

"FAS: Everybody's Baby: a Docudrama about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome". Tucson: Fasstar Enterprises, 2000. John Kellerman, 7725 E 33 St., Tucson AZ 85710, 520-296-9172. 35 min. Video for teens, starring a young man with FAS.

"Fetal Alcohol Syndrome movie", 4.6 MB download. Weber State Univ.

"Helping Families - Helping Children". By Yellowknife Films for Yellowknife Assn. for Community Living, Box 981, Yellowknife NT X1A 2N7; 867-920-2644; Part 1 (1997) is for parents of FAS children up to six years. Ways parents can support their children; problems to expect; strategies for managing. The companion guide describes behaviours to expect and management strategies. Part 2 (2001) focuses on children in the elementary school system; ways they can be supported to achieve success. Designed primarily for parents, but also insightful for teaching and health professionals.

"Journey through the Healing Circle". Robin laDue and Carolyn Hartness. Set of 4 books and 2 videos. Washington State Alcohol/Drug Clearinghouse, 1-800-662-9111.

"Living and Learning with FAS". By Lena Productions. Magic Lantern Communications, 1-800-263-1717. Meeting the special needs of children and adolescents with FAS and FAE. Part A: Assessment and the Early Years, 21 min. Part B: Adolescence and the Future, 22 min. "Preventing FAS". A pregnant woman never drinks alone. Part 2. 25 min.

"One Drink Won't Hurt My Baby - Will It?". Fetal Alcohol Family Assn., 204-786-1847. By the Adolescent Parent Centre, aided by the Assn. for Community Living - Manitoba and the Committee on Alcohol and Pregnancy. 19 min. The stories of a mother who drank through pregnancy; of foster parents and their daughter with FAS; and of a 21-year old woman with FAS.

"Precious Gift". Saskatchewan Institute on Prevention of Handicaps, 1997. 306-655-2512. 16 min. Filmed on the Beardy's and Okemasis Reserve in Saskatchewan. Supported by her partner, Kookum, doctor and friends, Celeste decides she will not drink while she is pregnant. The role of all community members in having a healthy baby is emphasized.

"Redefining Success: Raising Children Exposed Prenatally to Alcohol". Victoria: Ministry of Children and Families, 2001. Government Publications Services, 250-387-6409, 1-800-663-6105,, 28 min. Interviews with five B.C. families who adopted children exposed prenatally to alcohol. With supports and services, a parent may already have, or can learn, the skills to parent these children. The children benefit from a stable, loving home, and their parents reap many rewards -- pride, love, connection.

"Students Like Me: Teaching Children with FAS." Vida Health Communications, 6 Bigelow St., Cambridge MA 02139. 1-800-550-7047,, 39 min.

"The Fabulous FAS Quiz Show". Washington State Dept. of Health and March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, Western Washington Chapter, 1904 3rd Ave., #230, Seattle WA 98044. 206-624-1373. 15 min. Helps middle school students make the right choices regarding alcohol and reproduction.

"Un drame évitable -- les effects de l'alcool sur l'enfant à naître". Idéacom International, 1992. Nuance-Bourdon Audiovisuel Inc., 514-273-0605. 23 min.

"What is FAS?" Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Part 1. Overview of FAS that encourages women not to drink during pregnancy. A message for all -- professionals, family and friends -- who can help a woman make that choice. Washington State and B.C. doctors, and B.C. families. 1991. 24 min. Borrow free from Guardian, I.D.A, RxCentral and CDM Drugstores.

"Worth The Trip: Raising Children with FAS". Vida Health Communications, 6 Bigelow St., Cambridge MA 02139. 1-800-550-7047,, 49 min. Overview of problems facing adoptive and birth parents of FAS children. Experts and parent groups discuss the issues.

Where to get videos on FAS

In addition to the sources cited, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, 416-535-8501 ext. 6987,, will lend videos via Interlibrary Loan.

Support organizations, and newsletters

Support - Canada

Directory: FAS Parent Support Groups - Canada, Directory, contact info.

AB: FAS Parent Support Group, 631 Prospect Drive SW, Medicine Hat T1A 4C2. 403-529-8079. Alice McNeil. Monthly meetings.

AB: Lethbridge Community College - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder - Support Worker Program. 10 courses in 22 weeks. Hazel Mitchell, 1-800-572-0103 ext 7200,,

BC: FAS Resource Society, c/o Sunny Hill Health Centre for Children, 3644 Slocan St., Vancouver, V5M 3E8, 604-467-5591.

BC: FAS/E Support Network of B.C., 13279 72nd Ave., Surrey V3W 2N5. 604-507-6675;, Support, consultation and training across Canada. 5-day training courses in Surrey. Founded 1989 by Jan Lutke, Donna Wheway, Sandi Berg and Karen Kinsey.

BC: Prince George FAS Network, Northern Family Health Society, 1154 3rd Ave., Prince George V2L 3E5,, FAS community development tools, action committees, FAS research. Marlene Thio-Watts, 250-561-2689,

BC: Project Save,, A support group for parents of adolescents and adults with FASD, providing parents with tools to help them support their adolescent and adult children. Groups meet monthly in Surrey, B.C. and Ottawa, Ont. --Mar. 9, 2007

BC: Society of Special Needs Adoptive Parents (SNAP), 445 - 5525 West Boulevard, Vancouver BC V6M 3W6, 604-687-3114,,

MB: FAS/E Program, FAS support group, monthly meetings, library. Child/Family Resource Center, Cranberry Portage MB.

MB: FAS/FAE Interagency Program, 476 King St., #49, Winnipeg R2W 3Z5. Deborah Kacki, 204-582-8658.

MB: Fetal Alcohol Family Association of Manitoba, 210-500 Portage Ave., Winnipeg R3C 3X1, 204-786-1847,, Executive Director: Leilani Buschau. Providing advocacy, support and education to Manitoba families and professionals. "Circle of Friends" newsletter. --Nov. 18, 2004

ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, 75 Albert St., #300, Ottawa K1P 5E7. Karen Palmer, librarian, FAS Information Service, 1-800-559-4514; 613-235-4048, ext. 223,, FAS support groups across the country. FAS experts.

ON: FAS Network, Hamilton/Toronto area, Bruce Ritchie, 905-679-2866, Margaret Sprenger, Mississauga, 905-822-0733.

ON: FAS Treatment and Education Centre, Jill Dockrill, 194 Foster Ave., Belleville K8N 3P9, 613-968-8129,

ON: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Group of Ottawa. Support and education for parents and professionals on the effects of fetal alcohol. Meets the first Tuesday of the month, Oct.through June, at 7 p.m., Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Facilitated by Elspeth Ross and Dr. Viginia Bourget, psychologist, 613-737-1122, 613-446-4144, (Formerly at --Feb. 18, 2007

ON: FASAT (Ontario), FAS Assistance and Training, Parent support groups in southern Ontario; facts; myths; FAQ; does your child have FAS. Chris Margetson, Guelph, Ont.

ON: FASworld Canada, Bonnie Buxton, Brian Philcox, 1509 Danforth Ave., Toronto ON M4J 5C3, 416-465-7766,, For parents, professionals and individuals living with FAS. National organization strives to reduce FA disorders and their impact, working with health units, family support groups and other organizations who form chapters.

ON: FASworld Toronto (see FASworld Canada). Public support and education. Monthly meetings at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Training sessions for professionals and parents dealing with FAS-afflicted children. Founded 1995.

ON: Healthy Generations Family Support Program, Sioux Lookout. Judy Kay, 807-737-2214,

ON: Motherisk Program, Information on effects of alcohol; lab tests on babies; FAS assessments at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 416-813-6780.

ON: MotheRisk - Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. Toll-free 877-327-4636, open M-F, 9-5, for questions on alcohol or drug use during pregnancy. Doctors may also wish to consult with the team of experts, including pharmacologists, toxicologists, neurologists and paediatricians.

QC: SAFERA, 845 chemin du Bord de l'eau, St-Henri-de-Lèvis, Quèbec G0R 3E0, 1-418-882-2488,, Support group founded by Louise Morin and Luc Roy, adoptive parents of a girl with FAS.

SK: FAS Clinic, Alvin Buckwold Child Development Program. Dr. Patricia Blakley, Kinsmen Children's Centre, Saskatoon. Diagnosis of FAS.

SK: Food For Thought, Saskatoon. Pam Woodsworth, 306-655-4634

SK: Saskatchewan Fetal Alcohol Support Network, 510 Cynthia St., Saskatoon SK S7L 7K7, 306-975-0884, 1-866-673-3276,, Information, support and links to services for families and individuals with FASD and to professionals. Help to parent/caregiver support groups across the province. --Nov. 18, 2004

SK: Shadow Above F.A.S./F.A.E. support group. Debra MacNutt, 105 B, 378 Parkview Rd., Yorkton S3N 3A9, 306-783-9609.

YK: FAS Society Yukon (FASSY), Box 31396, Whitehorse Y1A 6K8, 867-393-4948, Judy Pakozdy, Executive Director. Founded 1996. Membership $5/yr.

Support - U.S.

Directory: FAS Parent Support Groups - United States, Directory, contact info.

AZ: Fasstar Enterprises, Teresa Kellerman, Tucson. 520-296-9172, Training and consultation for professionals providing services to individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol.

DC: National Organization on FAS (NOFAS), 1815 H. St. NW, #750, Washington 20006, 202-785-4585, 800-66-NOFAS, Articles, resources, groups.

MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda. Laurie Foutin.

OR: FAS Consultation, Education and Training Services (FASCETS), Diane Malbin, Box 83175, Portland 97283, 503-621-1271,, Support for children, adolescents and adults with FAS.

U.S.: Eastern European Adoption Coalition, For families adopting from Eastern Europe.

U.S.: Families for Russian and Ukrainian Adoption, For families adopting from the former Soviet Union. Chapters throughout the U.S.

U.S.: Child Welfare Information Gateway, Information on adopting children with developmental disabilities, caring for special needs children, adoption subsidies, post-adoption services.

WA: FAS Family Resource Institute, Box 2525, Lynwood 98036. 253-531-2878, 800-999-3429,, Free FAS info packet.

WA: Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA 98195, Ann Streissguth, 206-543-7155.

WI: Family Empowerment Network, University of Wisconsin, Madison Medical School, Madison, 608-262-6590, 800-462-5254, FAS resources, training.

Newsletters - Canada

About FASE, FAS/E Support Network of B.C., 13279 72nd Ave., Surrey BC V3W 2N5. Warm line 604-507-6675,, 4/yr, 24 pp., $40/yr. ISSN 1480-6649.

Family Groundwork Magazine, SNAP, 101 - 2780 East Broadway, Vancouver V5M 1Y8. 604-687-3114, 1-800-663-7627,, $36/year; 4/yr. "Canada's Magazine for Parenting Children with Challenges." Jennifer Lee, Editor, (Ceased publishing, 2007) (Replaced "Special Needs Adoptive Parents Newsletter")

B.C. FAS Resource Society Newsletter, B.C. FAS Resource Society, Sunny Hill Health Centre for Children, 3644 Slocan St., Vancouver, BC V5M 3E8, 604-467-5591.

Living With FAS/E, Saskatchewan Fetal Alcohol Support Network, 510 Cynthia St., Saskatoon SK S7L 7K7, 306-975-0884, toll free: 1-866-673-3276, 4/yr, 12 pp., $10/yr. --30 Jan 2004

Manitoba F.A.S. News, Committee on Alcohol and Pregnancy, Manitoba Medical Assn., 125 Sherbrooke St., Winnipeg MB R3C 2B5, 204-786-7565. Nykola Dubenski.

Post-adoption Helper, Box 1353, Southampton, Ont. N0H 2L0,, For all post-adoption issues. FAS is #12, Aug. 2002. Back issues available. Robin Hilborn. ISSN 1206-7989.

Newsletters - U.S.

F.A.S. Times, FAS Family Resource Institute, Box 2525, Lynnwood WA 98036. 253-531-2878, 800-999-3429,, 4/yr.

FAS/E Newsletter, Box 74612, Fairbanks AK 99707, 907-456-1101.

FEN Pen Newsletter, Family Empowerment Network, Madison WI. 608-262-6590, 800-462-5254,

Iceberg, Box 95597, Seattle WA 98145-2597, 206-827-1773, 4/yr, 8 pp., US$10/yr. Educational newsletter by FAS Information Service.

Web - Canada
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URLs verified, Mar. 9, 2007
Updated, Jan. 28, 2010

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